Uter Pendragon, meaning two siblings born of the same mother but a different father, is an epithet which historically describes Ambrosius Aurelianus (whose father was Constantius III) and his genetic link to his half-brother Cador (whose father was Gorlois of Cornwall).


Geoffrey of Monmouth’s worst blunder was his convoluted narrative of “The House of Constantine,” especially if he was indeed translating and interpreting his description from the notorious liber vetustissimus, the very ancient book. One obvious repetition is that Monmouth’s Constantine marries an unnamed Celtic noblewoman who bears three offspring, and likewise, his Utherpendragon also takes Ygerna as his Celtic concubine who bears three offspring, which sounds very much like a doublet, retelling the same tale because of confusion or misinterpretation. If the possibility of a doublet is accepted, Utherpendragon is another name for Constantine and the unnamed Celtic noblewoman is unveiled as Ygerna.

This prelude to Arthuriana, however, is more labyrinthine than imaginable. Aldroneus’s indefinable brother as an important figure from the House of Constantine is nonexistent. The core of the Roman Constantinian Dynasty dates to the third century, not the fifth,and Constantine the Usurper, also known as either Constantine the Briton or Flavius Constantinus, was a pretender beheaded in 411. The sole figure of Constantinus III is the only individual who could be considered as a member of the House of Constantine.

Monmouth’s faux pas carries over to Constantine’s offspring. British history has no record of intercessors between Gildas’s superbus tyrannus (Nennius’s Vortigern) and Ambrosius Aurelius. Then in Nennius’s narrative, Arthur follows Ambrosius. Yet Monmouth grants Constantine the first kingship, Ambrosius the second, Utherpendragon the third, and Arthur the fourth. And there are two other problems. The first is the term Untherpendragon which, Lewis Thorpe explains, is initially written simply as Uther (Ythr ben dragwn in the Jesus manuscript) and the epithet comes from a much later episode when  a wondrous star appears three times and takes on the shape of a dragon. Uther orders Merlin to interpret the portent and form that point onward, Uther is called Utherpendragon. This event occurs after the death of Ambrosius.

The contention of the epithet lies mainly on the affix “Uther.” Monmouth claims he is simply translating a very ancient book from Welsh to Latin, and that Pendragon translates to the head or leader of the Dragons. Some Celtists have proposed the supposition that Monmouth actually meant the prefix “Uther” to be based upon the Welsh word “Uthyr”, meanign terrible, dreadful, or connotatively invoking terror. Other researchers feel Uther is not even an epithet but a proper name that has no translation. Be that as it may, Uther of Ythr doesn’t appear in either Latin of Welsh dictionaries.

Since Monmouth was translating his work from Welsh to Latin, it is more probable that he was searching for Latin words to express his interpretation of definitions. Looking to Latin rather than to Welsh for an epithetic definition of Utherpendragon, therefore, provides an entirely different interpretation of the prefix for “Pendragon.” In Latin there are quite a few words which are derived from “uter.” Frequently called in Latin a “transferred defitiniton”–meaning the word is used in a metaphorical sense–the first ‘uter’, prononuced with a long ‘u’, means “the skin of an animal used as a bag or bottle.” An over-zealous Celticist recently wrote that uter- meant “leather bag”, but applying this meaning to Uter Pengragon is ludicrous.

The second literal definition, pronounced with a short ‘u’, translates to “half-siblings.” It applies to “uterine” (of the uterus or womb) and more appropriately means “born of the same mother but by a different father, listed etymologically in the Merriam Webster dictionary as Later Latin to Latin to Middle English.

Once his connection is made, this epithet–UterPendragon (and note the spelling of the prefix)–is perfect for King Arthur, NOT King Arthur’s father, that is, Constantine’s son. Both Arthur and Cador claim the same mother, Ygerna, butthey have different fathers: King Arthur’s father in legend is PENDRAGON and Cador’s father is Gorlois. Similarly, Pendragon is Constantius III, the Leader of the Dragons (cavalry). These detail are in agreement with what is recorded in the Historia Brittonum: “Arthur” is born of a Celtic woman and a Roman consulibus. Although GIldas is not quite that specific, he unmistakably indicates that the parents of Ambrosius Aurelianus (“Arthur”) “wore the purple”, meaning they were nobility.

Accepting this, history would therefore parallell legend. In history, Constantius III is sent as the Comes Britanniarum to Britain by Emporer Honorius to reclaim Britain as a province of the Western Empire. Constantius falls in love with Ygerna and after Gorlois’s death, he takes her as his queen. They have a son, Ambrosius Aurelianus, but before his birth, Constantius III is recalled to the mainland because of serious problems in Gaul. In legend, King Arthur’s father Pendragon becomes the High King of Britain when he is victorius against the barbarians after he arrives from the mainland. The new commander plots to seduce Ygerna, and when Gorlois dies, Pengragon takes Ygerna as his queen. After Pendragon is killed, his stepson, Cador, becomes a strong ally of Uterpendragon–King Arthur, son of Pendragon.

This is the only way which legitimizes Monmouth’s work about the “House of Constantine” and “Arthur of Britain” as being historic.

GALLA PLACIDIA———-        ———CONSTANTIUS———               ———–YGERNA———–        ————-GORLOIS
VALENTINIAN III                                                                                         CADOR


British manuscripts (De Excidio, Historia Brittonum, History of the Kings of Britain) convey the following information about Ambrosius:

  1. Ambrosius Aurelius becomes the great king among all the kings of the British nation.
  2.  He is called Ambrosius Merlinus and in a tale about him as Emrys, he displays his magical prowess.
  3.  Ambrosius’s father ‘wore the purple’ signifying Roman royalty.
  4.  Ambrosius’s father was a consulibus of Rome.
  5.  Ambrosius’s father was Utherpendragon.
  6.  Ambrosius inherits all of the kingdoms in the western part of Britain.
  7.  Discord develops between Ambrosius and Guithelinus (Vitalinus).




Note: all materials from Ambrosius Aurelianus: Legacy of The Pheonix is copyrighted 1/23, 2008. Please give appropriate citations when quoting excerpts, which are in black print.




The anagram to the right gives enigmatic titles for Arnbrosius Aurelianus. In the De Excklio, Gildas Badonicus supplies the historical Romano-Briton name of Ambrosius Aurelianus, which Bede echoes a couple of centuries later in A History of English Church a. People. A century beyond that, in The Historia Brittonum Nennius wrifts in more detail about Amftosius Aurelianus. The name Arthur attaches itself to the fifth-century Ambrosius for those who believe that Arthur is an epithet for Ambrosius Aurelianus. Geoffrey of Monmouth uses the name Aurelius Ambrosius, a. in certain passages he also uses the name Ambrosius Merlinus, with this latter name then converted to a character separate from Ambrosius Aurelianus. Emrys is a title given to Arnbrosius Aurelianus in The Historia when it records -The Tale of Emrysa, the encounter between Vol-lige. and Arnbrosius. Leon Fleuriot labeled the word Rigotamos as an epithet, and Geoffrey Ashe proposed in The Discovery <Wrist…that the epithet Riothamus referred to King Arthur, while The Historic King Arthur goes one step further and claims that both the epithets Arthur a. Riothamus refer to Arnbrosius Aurelianus. It is also the contention that NA., a LATIN appellation, NOT identical to the Welsh Uthyr, based upon the definition of UMr being siblings born of the same woman but a different man. Hence, Pendragon is Uterft father, and Uterpendragon is Ambrosius Aurelianus. Although this might sound complex to some–and absurd to others–once the circumstantial evidence is amassed from myriad of sources, these names and appellations tell a credible story of the fifth-century king who became known in legend as Arthur.
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Eftract from AmbrosiustArcturus manuscript
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